Monthly Archives: October 2013

Encryption/Liberty : Ladar Levison, owner of Lavabit

(English translation, work in progress)

Here is a very interesting interview of the owner of the deceased Lavabit website. This site offered a fully encrypted email service. One day, the government came to ask him for a full access to his e-mail system to read all encrypted communications without informing anyone. He ended up giving his encryption key on paper with a font that is tiny and impossible to copy. And because the data was not protected anymore, he made a complete backup of the data from the system with a new encryption key to an external disk, erased the entier original system and simply closed down his website.

This story is far from over. The U.S. government is still after him to this day.

Personally, I consider this man as a hero of modern times, a rare breed. It’s easy to say that the government spies us for our own good, to prevent people from doing evil. Remember that it takes a few dishonest people to use those rights against everybody.

This man is now unable to communicate with his lawyers safely. It is impossible to know with certainty that his communications with his lawyers are not read or listened by the U.S. government.

We aren’t far from being in the presence of a totalitarian state. We often take the Chinese as an example and forget too easily to look at what is happening here. The Chinese authorities are doing it for the good of the people as they try to make us believe in our society that calls itself democratic.

Linux command line 101 #1

Published originally here. (English translation in progress)

These small articles are designed to raise awareness of the command line for beginners and as a small reminder for those of us who are comfortable with Linux.

I will present here some commands that are used to navigate the Linux file system. Unlike under Windows, under Linux each available drive on your computer is not represented by a letter (disk c:, d:, E:, etc.). Rather they are all part of the file system. Usually Windows associates the main drive as Disk c:, but linux represented it by /, called the root directory, and the cdrom, floppy drive will be respectively find under /media/cdrom and /media/floppy.

/
|- /bin
|- /etc
...
...
|- /media
    |- /cdrom
    |- /floppy

The command interpreter (usually called “Shell”) has a multiple commands to interact with the file system.

Here are some basic commands :

  • pwd: Return the name and full path of the folder where you are now.
  • cd: Allows you to change your current working directory.
  • ls: Returns the list of items contained in a folder.

By default, when you log on to a terminal with access to the Linux command line, you should find yourself in your home directory. You can check if this is the case by simply typing “pwd” followed by the “Enter” key.

$ pwd
/home/me

From there you can move as you see fit with the command “cd” followed by the name of / folders in which you want to move. This command also uses special characters that have special meanings.

Examples :

/: Root directory.
. : Current directory.
.. : The directory above the current one.
~: The home directory of the user.

Here is a simple example of their usage :

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd .
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ..
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
[moi@monordi ~]$
/home
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ~
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd /usr/bin
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/usr/bin
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd /
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/

You can also simplify things by typing the command “cd” followed by “Enter” to find yourself directly in your personnal home directory.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ..
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi

You can also type “cd -” to return to the folder in which you were previously.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd /usr/bin
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/usr/bin
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd -
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi

It is also possible to move quickly to the personal home directory of another user by using the command “cd” followed by “~” and a user name.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ~bob
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/bob

We call the absolute path those path that start with the root directory, but them is not mandatory. If you are in the “/home” folder you can type “cd me” instead of “cd /home/me.” Since you do not start with the root directory, the shell will look for the “me” folder at your current position.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi

And you can also mix some special characters to make your own shortcut.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ../bob
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/bob

Several different commands can give you the same result.

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ../bob
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/bob

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd /home/bob
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/bob

[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/moi
[moi@monordi ~]$ cd ~bob
[moi@monordi ~]$ pwd
/home/bob

The choice is yours.

Now, with the “ls” command you can know the content of the desired directory. This command also uses the same special characters that the “cd” command uses. In fact, they are universal to all commands as they are an integral part of the command interpreter.

Here are some examples :

[moi@monordi ~]$ ls
Desktop Documents Musiques Images Photos Modèles
Vidéos
[moi@monordi ~]$ ls /home/moi
Desktop Documents Musiques Images Photos Modèles
Vidéos
[moi@monordi ~]$ ls /usr/
bin games kerberos libexec sbin src X11R6 etc include
lib local share tmp

This command takes options and arguments to change the information returned. Such as the -l option allows us to have a more detailed lists of the contents of the folder.

[moi@monordi ~]$ ls -l
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Desktop
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Documents
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Musiques
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Images
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Photos
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Modèles
drw-rw---- 1 moi moi 4096 Jui 8 2012 Vidéos

The “ls” command also accepts several arguments such as item names and will return the list of all the contents of each of them.

[moi@monordi ~]$ ls /usr/ /home/moi
/usr/:
bin games kerberos libexec sbin src X11R6 etc include
lib local share tmp
/home/moi/:
Desktop Documents Musiques Images Photos Modèles
Vidéos

To learn more about each of these commands, you can use the “man” command to get the system’s manual followed by the name of the command. This command will show you the list of options and arguments accepted by the command with their explanations. Do not feel embarrassed to use it, it’s free and quite informative.

IFixIt Pro Tech Toolkit

This is my new tool kit.
It’s gonna help me repair or upgrade Iphones, Android, macbook pro, macbook air, mac mini, ect. In fact, everything you can find on http://www.ifixit.com/.

source : http://www.ifixit.com/Tools/Pro-Tech-Toolkit/IF145-072

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Bag

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Bag

Content

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Bag Interior

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Bag Interior

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit left

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit left

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Middle

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Middle

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Right

IFixIT Pro Tech Toolkit Right

Futur project…

Phones

Phones